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谢旭辉:<陈轸为齐威王使> 翻译

2020-8-11 18:54| 发布者: admin| 查看: 34| 评论: 0

摘要: 郝海的回答: 69使臣不辱使命 陈轸为齐威王使 选自《战国策·齐策》(上海古籍出版社1978年版)。标题是编者加的。 《战国策》昭阳〔昭阳〕人名。此时为楚国大司马(掌管军政和军赋)。为楚伐魏,覆军杀将得八城,移 ...

郝海的回答:

69使臣不辱使命 陈轸为齐威王使 选自《战国策·齐策》(上海古籍出版社1978年版)。标题是编者加的。 《战国策》昭阳〔昭阳〕人名。此时为楚国大司马(掌管军政和军赋)。为楚伐魏,覆军杀将得八城,移兵而攻齐。陈轸为齐王使,见昭阳,再拜贺战胜,起而问:“楚之法,覆军杀将,其官爵何也?”昭阳曰:“官为上柱国〔上柱国〕也称柱国,是楚国的最高武官。,爵为上执〔上执〕也称“执”,是楚国最高的爵位。,亦作“圭”,上尖下方的贵重玉器。。”陈轸曰:“异贵于此者,何也?”曰:“唯令尹〔令尹〕楚国的最高官职,掌军政大权,相当于其他诸侯国的相。耳。” 陈轸曰:“令尹贵矣!王非置两令尹也,臣窃为公譬可也。楚有祠者,赐其舍人〔舍人〕王公贵族亲近的管事的人。一卮〔卮(zhī)〕古代盛酒的圆形器皿。酒。舍人相谓曰:‘数人饮之不足,一人饮之有余。请画地为蛇,先成者饮酒。’一人蛇先成,引酒且饮之,乃左手持卮,右手画蛇,曰:‘吾能为之足。’未成,一人之蛇成,夺其卮曰:‘蛇固无足,子安能为之足?’遂饮其酒。为蛇足者,终亡其酒。今君相楚而攻魏,破军杀将得八城,又移兵欲攻齐,齐畏公甚,公以是为名足矣,官之上非可重也。战无不胜而不知止者,身且死,爵且后归,犹为蛇足也。” 昭阳以为然,解军而去。 公孙弘使秦①选自《战国策?齐策》(上海古籍出版社1978年版)。标题是编者加的。 《战国策》孟尝君〔孟尝君〕即田文,又称薛公。为从。公孙弘〔公孙弘〕又作“公孙宏”,齐人,策士。谓孟尝君曰:“君何不使人先观秦王〔秦王〕指秦昭王,名稷,武王弟,公元前306年至前251年在位。?意者秦王帝王之主也,君恐不得为臣,奚暇从以难之?意者秦王不肖之主也,君从以难之,未晚。”孟尝君曰:“善,愿因请公往矣。” 公孙弘敬诺,以车十乘之秦。昭王闻之,而欲〔〕同“愧”,使羞愧。之以辞。公孙弘见,昭王曰:“薛公之地,大小几何?”公孙弘对曰:“百里。”昭王笑而曰:“寡人地数千里,犹未敢以有难也。今孟尝君之地方百里,而因欲难寡人,犹可乎?”公孙弘对曰:“孟尝君好人,大王不好人。”昭王曰:“孟尝君之好人也,奚如?”公孙弘曰:“义不臣乎天子,不友乎诸侯,得志不惭为人主,不得志不肯为人臣,如此者三人;而治可为管、商〔管、商〕管,指管仲,名夷吾,字仲,颍上(颍水之滨)人。商,指商鞅,即公孙鞅,卫国人。都是当时有名的政治家。之师,说义听行,能致其主霸王,如此者五人;万乘之严主也,辱其使者,退而自刎,必以其血①〔〕同“污”。其衣,如臣者十人。” 昭王笑而谢之,曰:“客胡为若此?寡人直与客论耳!寡人善孟尝君,欲客之必谕寡人之志也!”公孙弘曰:“敬诺。” 公孙弘可谓不侵矣。昭王,大国也;孟尝,千乘〔千乘(shèng)〕古代的兵车一辆叫一乘,千乘即千辆兵车。古代以拥有兵车的多少来衡量国家和封邑的大小。战国七雄即为“万乘之国”。也。立千乘之义而不可陵,可谓足使矣! ******* 《战国策》是一部亦史亦文的杰作,它所记载的事情并非是完全的“实录”,尤其是对策士言行的描写,带有明显的“创作”色彩,呈现出更多的文学魅力。《战国策》中塑造了相当一批使臣的形象,正如唐雎一样,他们往往受命于危难之际,不畏强暴,只身赴会,凭借自己的胆量勇气、机敏的应变能力和卓越的口才,最终说服诸侯王,化险为夷。 利用注释和工具书读懂以上两则使臣的故事,并试着把它讲给别人听。

张明远的回答:

69使臣不辱使命 陈轸为齐威王使 选自《战国策·齐策》(上海古籍出版社1978年版)。标题是编者加的。 《战国策》昭阳〔昭阳〕人名。此时为楚国大司马(掌管军政和军赋)。为楚伐魏,覆军杀将得八城,移兵而攻齐。陈轸为齐王使,见昭阳,再拜贺战胜,起而问:“楚之法,覆军杀将,其官爵何也?”昭阳曰:“官为上柱国〔上柱国〕也称柱国,是楚国的最高武官。,爵为上执〔上执〕也称“执”,是楚国最高的爵位。,亦作“圭”,上尖下方的贵重玉器。。”陈轸曰:“异贵于此者,何也?”曰:“唯令尹〔令尹〕楚国的最高官职,掌军政大权,相当于其他诸侯国的相。耳。” 陈轸曰:“令尹贵矣!王非置两令尹也,臣窃为公譬可也。楚有祠者,赐其舍人〔舍人〕王公贵族亲近的管事的人。一卮〔卮(zhī)〕古代盛酒的圆形器皿。酒。舍人相谓曰:‘数人饮之不足,一人饮之有余。请画地为蛇,先成者饮酒。’一人蛇先成,引酒且饮之,乃左手持卮,右手画蛇,曰:‘吾能为之足。’未成,一人之蛇成,夺其卮曰:‘蛇固无足,子安能为之足?’遂饮其酒。为蛇足者,终亡其酒。今君相楚而攻魏,破军杀将得八城,又移兵欲攻齐,齐畏公甚,公以是为名足矣,官之上非可重也。战无不胜而不知止者,身且死,爵且后归,犹为蛇足也。” 昭阳以为然,解军而去。 公孙弘使秦①选自《战国策?齐策》(上海古籍出版社1978年版)。标题是编者加的。 《战国策》孟尝君〔孟尝君〕即田文,又称薛公。为从。公孙弘〔公孙弘〕又作“公孙宏”,齐人,策士。谓孟尝君曰:“君何不使人先观秦王〔秦王〕指秦昭王,名稷,武王弟,公元前306年至前251年在位。?意者秦王帝王之主也,君恐不得为臣,奚暇从以难之?意者秦王不肖之主也,君从以难之,未晚。”孟尝君曰:“善,愿因请公往矣。” 公孙弘敬诺,以车十乘之秦。昭王闻之,而欲〔〕同“愧”,使羞愧。之以辞。公孙弘见,昭王曰:“薛公之地,大小几何?”公孙弘对曰:“百里。”昭王笑而曰:“寡人地数千里,犹未敢以有难也。今孟尝君之地方百里,而因欲难寡人,犹可乎?”公孙弘对曰:“孟尝君好人,大王不好人。”昭王曰:“孟尝君之好人也,奚如?”公孙弘曰:“义不臣乎天子,不友乎诸侯,得志不惭为人主,不得志不肯为人臣,如此者三人;而治可为管、商〔管、商〕管,指管仲,名夷吾,字仲,颍上(颍水之滨)人。商,指商鞅,即公孙鞅,卫国人。都是当时有名的政治家。之师,说义听行,能致其主霸王,如此者五人;万乘之严主也,辱其使者,退而自刎,必以其血①〔〕同“污”。其衣,如臣者十人。” 昭王笑而谢之,曰:“客胡为若此?寡人直与客论耳!寡人善孟尝君,欲客之必谕寡人之志也!”公孙弘曰:“敬诺。” 公孙弘可谓不侵矣。昭王,大国也;孟尝,千乘〔千乘(shèng)〕古代的兵车一辆叫一乘,千乘即千辆兵车。古代以拥有兵车的多少来衡量国家和封邑的大小。战国七雄即为“万乘之国”。也。立千乘之义而不可陵,可谓足使矣! ******* 《战国策》是一部亦史亦文的杰作,它所记载的事情并非是完全的“实录”,尤其是对策士言行的描写,带有明显的“创作”色彩,呈现出更多的文学魅力。《战国策》中塑造了相当一批使臣的形象,正如唐雎一样,他们往往受命于危难之际,不畏强暴,只身赴会,凭借自己的胆量勇气、机敏的应变能力和卓越的口才,最终说服诸侯王,化险为夷。 利用注释和工具书读懂以上两则使臣的故事,并试着把它讲给别人听。

黄世仁的回答:

昭阳替楚国讨伐魏国,消灭魏国军队,杀死魏国将领,占领了魏国八座城,又挥师攻打齐国。陈轸替齐王出使到楚军军营,拜见昭阳,向他行礼祝贺他的胜利,行礼完毕起身问道:「按照楚国的制度,消灭敌人军队,杀死他们的将领,封给什么样的官爵?」昭阳说:「官职为上柱国(官职名),爵位为上执珪(爵位名)。」陈轸说:「还有比这个更高的吗,是什么?」昭阳说:「只有令尹(相当于宰相)了。」 陈轸说:「令尹的职位很高了!楚王并没有设置两个令尹的位置,我给您打个比方。楚国有个人祭祀祖先,赐个他的家人一坛沪粻高救薨嚼胳楔供盲酒。家人们相互说:『几个人一起喝不过瘾,一个人喝还能剩下点。我们在地上画蛇,谁先画好谁来喝。』其中一人先画好了,拿来酒坛就要喝,于是左手拿着酒坛,右手画着蛇,说:『我能给蛇添上脚。』还没有添完,另一个人把蛇画好了,夺过他的坛子说:『蛇本来没有脚,你怎么能给他添上脚呢?』于是把酒喝了。给蛇画脚的人,最后却没喝上酒。如今您为楚国攻打魏国,打垮了他们的军队杀了他们的将领,获得了八座城,又挥师转战打算攻打齐国,齐国非常害怕您,您因此名声已经足够大了,您的官职不能再加封了。战无不胜却不知道停止,就会自寻死路,爵位也封不上了,就像给蛇添足的那个人。」 昭阳认为他说的对,解除了包围撤军走了。

于爱东的回答:

陈轸为齐威王使 选自《战国策·齐策》(上海古籍出版社1978年版)。标题是编者加的。 《战国策》昭阳〔昭阳〕人名。此时为楚国大司马(掌管军政和军赋)。为楚伐魏,覆军杀将得八城,移兵而攻齐。陈轸为齐王使,见昭阳,再拜贺战胜,起而问:“楚之法,覆军杀将,其官爵何也?”昭阳曰:“官为上柱国〔上柱国〕也称柱国,是楚国的最高武官。,爵为上执〔上执〕也称“执”,是楚国最高的爵位。,亦作“圭”,上尖下方的贵重玉器。。”陈轸曰:“异贵于此者,何也?”曰:“唯令尹〔令尹〕楚国的最高官职,掌军政大权,相当于其他诸侯国的相。耳。” 陈轸曰:“令尹贵矣!王非置两令尹也,臣窃为公譬可也。楚有祠者,赐其舍人〔舍人〕王公贵族亲近的管事的人。一卮〔卮(zhī)〕古代盛酒的圆形器皿。酒。舍人相谓曰:‘数人饮之不足,一人饮之有余。请画地为蛇,先成者饮酒。’一人蛇先成,引酒且饮之,乃左手持卮,右手画蛇,曰:‘吾能为之足。’未成,一人之蛇成,夺其卮曰:‘蛇固无足,子安能为之足?’遂饮其酒。为蛇足者,终亡其酒。今君相楚而攻魏,破军杀将得八城,又移兵欲攻齐,齐畏公甚,公以是为名足矣,官之上非可重也。战无不胜而不知止者,身且死,爵且后归,犹为蛇足也。” 昭阳以为然,解军而去。 公孙弘使秦①选自《战国策?齐策》(上海古籍出版社1978年版)。标题是编者加的。 《战国策》孟尝君〔孟尝君〕即田文,又称薛公。为从。公孙弘〔公孙弘〕又作“公孙宏”,齐人,策士。谓孟尝君曰:“君何不使人先观秦王〔秦王〕指秦昭王,名稷,武王弟,公元前306年至前251年在位。?意者秦王帝王之主也,君恐不得为臣,奚暇从以难之?意者秦王不肖之主也,君从以难之,未晚。”孟尝君曰:“善,愿因请公往矣。” 公孙弘敬诺,以车十乘之秦。昭王闻之,而欲〔〕同“愧”,使羞愧。之以辞。公孙弘见,昭王曰:“薛公之地,大小几何?”公孙弘对曰:“百里。”昭王笑而曰:“寡人地数千里,犹未敢以有难也。今孟尝君之地方百里,而因欲难寡人,犹可乎?”公孙弘对曰:“孟尝君好人,大王不好人。”昭王曰:“孟尝君之好人也,奚如?”公孙弘曰:“义不臣乎天子,不友乎诸侯,得志不惭为人主,不得志不肯为人臣,如此者三人;而治可为管、商〔管、商〕管,指管仲,名夷吾,字仲,颍上(颍水之滨)人。商,指商鞅,即公孙鞅,卫国人。都是当时有名的政治家。之师,说义听行,能致其主霸王,如此者五人;万乘之严主也,辱其使者,退而自刎,必以其血①〔〕同“污”。其衣,如臣者十人。” 昭王笑而谢之,曰:“客胡为若此?寡人直与客论耳!寡人善孟尝君,欲客之必谕寡人之志也!”公孙弘曰:“敬诺。” 公孙弘可谓不侵矣。昭王,大国也;孟尝,千乘〔千乘(shèng)〕古代的兵车一辆叫一乘,千乘即千辆兵车。古代以拥有兵车的多少来衡量国家和封邑的大小。战国七雄即为“万乘之国”。也。立千乘之义而不可陵,可谓足使矣! ******* 《战国策》是一部亦史亦文的杰作,它所记载的事情并非是完全的“实录”,尤其是对策士言行的描写,带有明显的“创作”色彩,呈现出更多的文学魅力。《战国策》中塑造了相当一批使臣的形象,正如唐雎一样,他们往往受命于危难之际,不畏强暴,只身赴会,凭借自己的胆量勇气、机敏的应变能力和卓越的口才,最终说服诸侯王,化险为夷。 利用注释和工具书读懂以上两则使臣的故事,并试着把它讲给别人听。 Chen Zhenwei qi Weiwang causes Elected from "War National policy Uneven Horse whip" (Shanghai ancientbook publishing house in 1978 version). 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Has not become, a person of snake becomes, seizes its卮 said: ' The snake firmly does not have the foot, sub- 安能 forit foot?' Then drinks its liquor. For the superfluousness, finallyperishes its liquor. Now Mr. Chu Ergong Wei, the broken armed forcewill kill eight cities, also will move the soldier to want to attackneat, Qi Weigong really, male take will be as the famous foot, abovethe official non- might be heavy. Invincible but did not knowstopping, the body also dies, 爵 also latter turns over to, for isstill superfluous." Illustrious positive by 为然, Xie Juner goes. Gongsun greatly causes Qin (1) to elect from "the war national policy?Uneven horse whip "(Shanghai ancient book publishing house in 1978version). The title is the editor adds. "War National policy" Mr. Meng Chang [ Mr. Meng Chang ] is the fieldarticle, also calls the Artemisia stelleriana male. For from. Gongsungreat [ Gongsun is great ] is "Gongsun greatly", uneven person,strategist. Says Meng Changjun to say that, "Why not does Mr. causethe person first to observe the Qin king [ the Qin king ] to refer toQin Zhaowang, the famous millet, the King Wu younger brother, reigns306 B.C. to previous 251 years. ? Host of the Italy Qin king kingalso, Mr. fears does not have to be the feudal official, the Xi freetime from by difficult it? The Italy Qin king unfilial host also, Mr.from by difficult it, not to have been late." Meng Changjun saidthat, "Friendly, hopes because please male toward." The Gongsun great respect promise, ten rides Qin by the vehicle. Theillustrious king hears it, but wants [ ] with "to be ashamed", causesashamed. By refined language. Gongsun greatly sees, illustrious WangYue: "Artemisia stelleriana male place, size geometry?" Gongsunenlarges to said that, "Hundred miles." Illustrious Wang Xiaoer saidthat, "My number great distance, has not still dared by to havedifficultly. Now place of hundred miles Mr. Meng Chang, but becausewants to be difficult I, probably?" Gongsun enlarges to said that,"Mr. Meng Chang good person, big king not good person." IllustriousWang Yue that, "Good person of Mr. the Meng Chang also, Xi like?"Gongsun greatly said that, "Righteousness feudal official emperor,不友 the feudal lord, is not successful the unashamed manner host,is not successful is not willing to be the official, so three people;But governs may for the tube, business [ tube, business ] the tube,refers 管仲, 夷 I, character Zhong, on Ying (shore of the Yingshuiriver) person. Business, refers to Shang Yang, namely Gongsun 鞅,protects the people. All was at that time the famous statesman. Theteacher, said righteousness listens to the line, can send its hostoverlord, so five people; 万乘 Yan Zhuye, shame its messenger, drawsback suicides, must by his/her blood (1) [ ] with "the dirt". Itsclothes, like feudal official ten people." Illustrious Wang Xiaoer thanks it, said: "The guest acts recklessly ifthis? I straight discuss the ear with the guest! My friendly Mr. MengChang, wants the guest to have the edict I the will!" Gongsun greatlysaid that, "Respects the promise." Gongsun greatly it may be said does not invade. Illustrious king,great nation; Meng tastes, 千乘 [ 千乘 (shèng) ] ancient timesmilitary transport train called as soon as to ride, 千乘 namelythousand military transport trains. Ancient times by had the militarytransport train how many weighed the country and 封邑 the size. TheWarring States seven male are "万乘 the country". . Sets up 千乘righteousness but not to be possible the mausoleum, it may be saidfully causes! ******* "War National policy" is an also history also articlemasterpiece, it records the matter is by no means complete "thefactual record", to the strategist words and deeds description, hasobviously "the creation" in particular the color, presents the moreliteratures charm. "War National policy" center has portrayed quiteone group of envoys' images, just like Tang 雎 is same, they oftenare ordered to when the danger, the fear is not violent, solitarilyattends a meeting, relies on own guts courage, the resourceful straincapacity and the remarkable eloquence, finally convinces the feudallord king, turns danger into safety. Read above two piece of envoys' story using the annotation and thereference book, and tries to say it to the others listens.

孟繁有的回答:

昭阳替楚国讨伐魏国,消灭魏国军队,杀死魏国将领,占领了魏国八座城,又挥师攻打齐国。陈轸替齐王出使到楚军军营,拜见昭阳,向他行礼祝贺他的胜利,行礼完毕起身问道:「按照楚国的制度,消灭敌人军队,杀死他们的将领,封给什么样的官爵?」昭阳说:「官职为上柱国(官职名),爵位为上执珪(爵位名)。」陈轸说:「还有比这个更高的吗,是什么?」昭阳说:「只有令尹(相当于宰相)了。」 陈轸说:「令尹的职位很高了!楚王并没有设置两个令尹的位置,我给您打个比方。楚国有个人祭祀祖先,赐个他的家人一坛酒。家人们相互说:『几个人一起喝不过瘾,一个人喝还能剩下点。我们在地上画蛇,谁先画好谁来喝。』其中一人先画好了,拿来酒坛就要喝,于是左手拿着酒坛,右手画着蛇,说:『我能给蛇添上脚。』还没有添完,另一个人把蛇画好了,夺过他的坛子说:『蛇本来没有脚,你怎么能给他添上脚呢?』于是把酒喝了。给蛇画脚的人,最后却没喝上酒。如今您为楚国攻打魏国,打垮了他们的军队杀了他们的将领,获得了八座城,又挥师转战打算攻打齐国,齐国非常害怕您,您因此名声已经足够大了,您的官职不能再加封了。战无不胜却不知道停止,就会自寻死路,爵位也封不上了,就像给蛇添足的那个人。」 昭阳认为他说的对,解除了包围撤军走了。


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